Welcome to the Energy Blog


  • The Energy Blog is where all topics relating to The Energy Revolution are presented. Increasingly, expensive oil, coal and global warming are causing an energy revolution by requiring fossil fuels to be supplemented by alternative energy sources and by requiring changes in lifestyle. Please contact me with your comments and questions. Further Information about me can be found HERE.

    Jim


  • SUBSCRIBE TO THE ENERGY BLOG BY EMAIL

After Gutenberg

Clean Break

The Oil Drum

Statistics

Blog powered by Typepad

« Missouri City Goes 100% Wind Power | Main | GM Invests in Mascoma »

May 02, 2008

TrackBack

TrackBack URL for this entry:
http://www.typepad.com/services/trackback/6a00d83451b5da69e200e552206cf88834

Listed below are links to weblogs that reference Land for Largest Field of Switchgrass for Bioenergy Acquired:

Comments

Will

Ethanol Producers desperatly need to start cranking this stuff out in massive quanities if they want to continue to scale production past 15 billion gallons (The current administrations cap on corn based ethanol). The United States already has 13.6 billion gallon capacity operational or under constructions and only 22 million gallons of that come from cellulosic ethanol. It's a good sign to see cellulosic ethanol finally emerging, but this needs to happen alot faster if this country wants to remain serious about biofuel production.

me2

1100 acres is almost nothing ! Its less than 1 mile x 2 miles of land. My dad used to farm twice that much land all by himself. And its no big deal to plant switchgrass. a) Its commonly grown and b) you can always cut it and bale it and feed it to cattle. I don't know what the big deal is about. Cellulosic ethanol would be better than corn ethanol, but its still will need a ton of land and it will be energy wasteful. We need to look at conservation and electric cars !

Samantha

If you'd like to learn more about the potential for advanced feedstocks, such as switchgrass, algae, and others, you should check out the Renewable Energy Finance Forum-Wall Street, held June 18-19 in New York City.

REFF brings together financiers and renewable energy project developers, like Abengoa, to network and share ideas about the future of the industry. One of the official event sessions will feature Bill Holmberg, the Chairman of the Biomass Coordinating Council, leading a discussion about biofuels--including switchgrass.

For more information, visit www.REFFWallStreet.com.

Kit P

And what will they learn (again)?

“will be less than 35 miles”

This is too far to haul biomass to produce energy. Transportation is the largest environmental impact of biomass. It is also a safety consideration.

Hauling feed is a different story. Agriculture is not held to the same safety and environmental standards as the energy industry. Considering past practices agriculture would go out of business if it had to meet the same standards as the rest of industry. Since starvation would result, most everyone looked the other ways.

Since agriculture is getting into energy business, this will change. Some are concerned about a trunk carrying spent nuclear fuel. I am concerned about trucks carrying anhydrous ammonia. Energy facilities smut have an EIS per NEPA. If the EIS shows more trucks carrying anhydrous ammonia down the road with school buses carrying my children, then they will have to show how it is significantly better than the alternatives.

wray

Thanks for the post, tiny nit; your headline is missing a "c" in "switchgrass"

me2

Anhydrous Ammonia is a relatively safe chemical.

Its slightly combustible under very specific conditions. Mostly it dries out your eyes if you get a whiff of it.

I grew up on the farm and applied a lot of NH4. Its no big deal. If an NH4 truck hit a school bus and the tank burst open, children could be affected. But it is a lot safer than a fuel truck carrying gasoline, which would likely kill everyone.

So before you say that NH4 trucks should be kept off the road, we should take gasoline tankers off the road. Are you ready to quit driving ?

Kit P

It would appear that me2 is missing the point. Energy facilities must meet higher standards than his daddy's farm. Did me2 help with the NEPA EIS? Did his daddy train him to OSHA 1910 regulations? Has me2 read the MSDS for anhydrous ammonia?

“Anhydrous Ammonia is a relatively safe chemical.”

No actually, anhydrous ammonia is a very hazardous chemical unless me2 does not consider immediate death a hazard to consider. Judging from the number of deaths and significant injuries related to anhydrous ammonia the risk is not easy to mitigate.

A properly written EIS would describe the feedstock sources for the the ethanol plant and the safety practices that would be followed.

Just for the record, many of the farms I have visited meet the highest standards for safety and respect for the environment. Producing biofuels is an excellent alternative to importing energy.

me2

"It would appear that me2 is missing the point. Energy facilities must meet higher standards than his daddy's farm." No, I didn't miss the point. There is nothing wrong with the current farm and chemical safety standards ? "Did me2 help with the NEPA EIS?" No. Did his daddy train him to OSHA 1910 regulations? Has me2 read the MSDS for anhydrous ammonia?" Yes and Yes. As a matter of fact, the local fire department was trained especially for handling NH4 spills and we did simulations that involved leaks. Respirators and gloves were worn. Eye wash stations are on the equipment, etc. Fully trained ! Hazardous material placards present and material safety data sheets in the tractor with an emergency phone number. Ready, prepared, informed and trained ! “Anhydrous Ammonia is a relatively safe chemical.” No actually, anhydrous ammonia is a very hazardous chemical unless me2 does not consider immediate death a hazard to consider. If NH4 is dangerous then so is gasoline, diesel fuel, household ammonia, bleach, battery acid, hydrogen, propane, natural gas, oven cleaner, etc. Stop making a boogie man out of something that when used properly is perfectly safe ! Are you worried about your propane tank on your BBQ blowing up and killing you ? Well apparently you should be because propane tanks are far, far more lethal than NH4 is. "Judging from the number of deaths and significant injuries related to anhydrous ammonia the risk is not easy to mitigate." What the heck are you talking about ? The following google search is not turning up many deaths. http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=%22Anhydrous+ammonia%22+death&btnG=Google+Search&meta= "A properly written EIS would describe the feedstock sources for the the ethanol plant and the safety practices that would be followed. Just for the record, many of the farms I have visited meet the highest standards for safety and respect for the environment." Don't start telling us that we should outlaw NH4 as a fertilizer source for ethanol plants ! I have a degree in agriculture ! Plants need nitrogen and NH4 is a heck of a lot better than other forms on N. "Producing biofuels is an excellent alternative to importing energy." Biofuels are terrible in that they have a poor overall energy balance. To say nothing about the fact that we are burning food for energy and people are starving around the world. Even if it is ethanol from cellulose, its still using agricultural land for producing fuel.

Kit P

I am glad me2 is somewhat trained to handle hazardous material. It is nice that has me2 has an ag degree. Now if we can get me3 to couple his brain and education to think for himself rather than blindly accept what English major write and parrot it back. In other words, me2 it sounds like you have some education and experience that is more interesting and informative than the NYT agenda driven fiction posing as journalism.

The first mistake me2 makes is playing the 'what about this what about that game'. Yes, each hazard must be addressed. Please note me2 that you are playing the 'boogie man' game not me. If you are going to rant try to at least read what I wrote. There is a difference between evaluating the best choices and 'outlaw NH4'. I will come back to anhydrous ammonia for growing biomass.

“not turning up many deaths”

The second mistake me2 makes is having low standards. For the record me2, the criteria where I work is zero. The last facility I worked on a hazard analysis (integrated safety analysis to be exact), the largest risk in terms of total deaths (on and offsite) was anhydrous ammonia.

“Biofuels are terrible in that they have a poor overall energy balance.”

Really compared to what? Certainly not compared to EVs that he touts. The second mistake me2 makes is not using a systematic approach for evaluating energy production. How many LCA has me2 read? This a trap many with college degrees make. What I know about local ag practices does not come from the NYT but talking to farmers and agronomists.

This is a very complicated issue. The goal should be to safely reduce dependence on foreign energy sources without creating a larger environmental impact. The basis for discussing miles driven and
anhydrous ammonia is that they are both important factors for safety, energy use, and environment impact.

“its still using agricultural land for producing fuel”

Really, where did me2 get his ag degree, the free republic of Davis?

The makes mistake me2 makes is not 'thinking out of the box'. Here is the deal, and me2 should know this if his head was not so far up you know where. The US has a huge amounts of semi-arid land like the panhandle of Oklahoma. What happens when you use too much anhydrous ammonia to increase productivity? Anhydrous ammonia is very toxic to bacteria. When you kill the bacteria holding the soil together, the first strong wind creates a dust bowl.

Turning marginal land into productive land using the applicable ag techniques is a win-win-win situation that can be replicated 1000 of times. Reducing natural environmental impact (wind erosion), creating local jobs, reducing energy imports. There could be a substantial ghg reduction but that is very location specific.

Engineer-Poet

me2:

  • NH3 is ammonia.  NH4+ is the ammonium ion.
  • Learn to use the
    and
    HTML tags, as well as standard paragraph structure.

Engineer-Poet

Crap, the lousy software converted the escapes without re-escaping them.  That was the

and
tags.

Engineer-Poet

It DID IT AGAIN.  This appears to require DOUBLE escapes:

and
tags.
Engineer-Poet

I don't believe this.

Just use "blockquote" and "/blockquote" inside pairs of "<" and ">" characters.

me2

"Anhydrous ammonia is very toxic to bacteria. When you kill the bacteria holding the soil together, the first strong wind creates a dust bowl."

Have you EVER farmed ? Do you know anything about farming ?

Bob Wallace

Switchgrass is a perennial grass. When harvested the tops are cut off, the root structure remains. That makes a "dust bowl" situation rather unlikely.

Does the idea of making liquid fuels from plants make sense? Research will tell.

Test plots like this will tell us more about the real world problems that might or might not exist.

Transportation to a processing plant might be a major problem. Long hauls of low energy mass would be a deal killer. But there might be a way to create small processing plants that could sit in the middle of switchgrass farming areas.

And growing it in Oklahoma? OK is a pretty windy place. Wind -> electricity -> ammonia might also be a part of the puzzle. One might be able to create a nitrogen source quite close to where it was to be applied.

Bob Wallace

""Producing ethanol from corn requires almost as much energy to produce as it yields," he explains, "while ethanol from switchgrass can produce about five times more energy than you put in. When you factor in the energy required to make tractors, transport farm equipment, plant and harvest, and so on, the net energy output of switchgrass is about 20 times better than corn's." Switchgrass also does a far better job of protecting soil, virtually eliminating erosion. And it removes considerably more CO2 from the air, packing it away in soils and roots."

"Bransby's (a switchgrass farmer in Alabama) 6-year average, 11.5 tons a year, translates into about 11,500 gallons of ethanol per acre. An added bonus is the electricity that can be produced from the leftover portions of the crop that won't convert to ethanol."

Oak Ridge National Lab report

http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/switgrs.html

Kit P

“OK is a pretty windy place. Wind -> electricity -> ammonia might also be a part of the puzzle.”

To be sustainable, you have to play the cards you are dealt.

me2

a) plants don't need ammonia. They need nitrogen. The hydrogen ion is just a convenient way to carry nitrogen, which is normally a gas. b) If everyone is all worried about nitrogen, put the switchgrass into a rotation with a legume (peas, alfalfa). If you inoculate those plants, they fix nitrogen from the air into the soil. The comment about NH3 being dangerous really go my goat. Its really obvious that the person who made this comment doesn't know anything about NH3 and/or farming. And once I provided information he came back with "one death is too many". But yet 1) I bet this person walks across the street everyday and uses a propane BBQ from time to time and 2) I bet this person drives a car with gasoline and would like to use ethanol. You can't have it all ! If you want cheap bread on your table or ethanol, we have to use fertilizer. And NH3 is a very safe effective way to fertilize. For someone with zero background in agriculture to come on here and criticize that just burns me up ! It seems that everyone who can read on the Internet and has an opinion has become an expert in all things alternative energy. FWIW, I work with a company involved with alternative energy. That doesn't make me an expert, I'm just disclosing so people know where I am speaking from. Have a great day.

me2

For the record, I put paragraph breaks and such in the above post but they don't show. I have no idea why. My paragraph breaks used to show up just fine.

Bob Wallace

me2 -

You got sucked into an exchange with Kit P.

Best to just ignore him.

Kit P

Thanks, Bob for appointing yourself to the Interned COPs but for the benefit other readers I will share this:

“Farmers will often transport anhydrous ammonia from fertilizer plants in trailer tanks hooked to pickup trucks or tractors. The material is not dangerous when handled properly, but if not handled carefully it can be extremely dangerous.”

http://www.firehouse.com/training/hazmat/studies/2002/03_ammonia.html

If me2 is any indication, the diver of the pickup does not understand the difference between Anhydrous Ammonia and a weak solution of Ammonia hydroxide. So give the farmers a break when you see them hauling white trailers and stay upwind.

If that is not scary enough, me2 wrote

“plants don't need ammonia. They need nitrogen.”

Where did you go to ag school? This must be the little black box of ag theory. Stick some chemicals in the ground and see what happens.

It would be nice if an ag degreed person understood more about the environment and how plants up take nutrients.

me2

You got sucked into an exchange with Kit P.
Best to just ignore him.
===============================================

Thanks for the advice. I'm relatively new here. I guess I got sucked in.

Great site, btw !

Bob Wallace

Blue Fire, a ethanol manufacturer is in the process of building plants next to landfills where they plan on converting biomass (waste wood, non-recyclable paper, yard waste) into fuel. (They have built and tested three pilot project plants.)

http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/bluefire-to-break-ground-879.html

They are designing plants which are "modular" and can be efficiently built where the raw material sources are. These plants are designed to handle about 700 tons of material a day.

Five year yield averages for switchgrass run 11.5 tons per acre. Let's use 10 for easier math and to build some conservation into the numbers from the get-go.

10 tons per acre yield.
700 tons per day to feed the plant.
70 acres per day.
25,500 acres per year (365 days operation).
Approximately 40 square miles.

A rough maximum haul of 7 miles for a well designed switchgrass to ethanol plantation with the conversion plant located right in the middle of the fields.

Obviously the average haul would be half that. At potentially 11,000 gallons of ethanol per acre we could fuel the trucks and still have some left over to sell.

http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/switgrs.html

Engineer-Poet

If you consider the area as a circle of 40 mi² area centered on the plant, the maximum distance would be only 3.6 miles as the crow flies.

Keeping a plant busy 24/7/365 requires a source of feedstock which is available year-round and doesn't change characteristics enough to require different processing systems.  Does switchgrass meet that definition?  It grows seasonally, and its mature stems are very different from the growing shoots (at least for ruminant feed).  Harvesting it in deep winter snow could be a problem, so it would have to be brought in and baled after the growing season.  The naïve calculations are probably a bit optimistic.

There's also the conflicting need for food.  Rather than growing switchgrass as an energy crop on well-watered land, maize is probably the optimal crop; it can produce ~4 tons/acre of grain plus ~2 tons/acre of available stover.  Whatever is fed to livestock yields manure which can be digested for methane, giving a three-fer.

Bob Wallace

I went with sloppy-larger numbers to avoid the nit-picker(s) who attempt(s) to find one small problem and then declare an idea invalid. ;o)

Switchgrass is a pretty sturdy plant and is cut for hay. As someone who has been intimate with hay, if you keep it dry it lasts a long time. I would assume that it would be possible to cut, bale and cover in season in order to carry over to the next.

Additionally, if we're talking about run down cotton land in the Deep South, we're probably talking multiple crops per year and no snow worries. And we wouldn't be taking land out of food production, but using poor quality land that would require major inputs to grow a food crop.

Here's a couple of cuts from the linked article....
...

In the hard, shallow soil of southern Alabama, Dave Bransby is turning cotton fields into swatches of grassland. Some Alabama farmers joke that there's no soil in Alabama to farm—two centuries of King Cotton and steady erosion haven't left much behind.

...

"Producing ethanol from corn requires almost as much energy to produce as it yields," he explains, "while ethanol from switchgrass can produce about five times more energy than you put in. When you factor in the energy required to make tractors, transport farm equipment, plant and harvest, and so on, the net energy output of switchgrass is about 20 times better than corn's."

An encouraging thing about swtichgrass is that it seems to give something back to the land as opposed to corn which is a heavy feeder and hard on land.

Kit P

It does not sound like E-P is nitpicking. For an energy project to become a reality and produce energy instead of press releases, it has to go through a due diligence process where they will ask about the reliability of the fuel supply for 30 years. Biomass is the second largest source of renewable energy after hydroelectric. Several case studies of successful operations have indicated the biggest issue is availability of fuel. If an energy project can collect a tipping fee that is lower than the local land fill, it is likely to be economical. If Steve is lurking around maybe he can comment.

Biomass is more valuable as food and fiber than as energy. It is cheaper for farmers to burn or let rot crop residues than to haul it to the energy facility which has to meet higher safety and environmental
standards.

E-P present a better example of using biomass for both protein and energy. The issue here is that is more complex. It is harder for investors to understand. The regulatory process is risky too. Someday it will sop.

Al Fin

$125 a barrel oil provides a lot of incentive for investors to get up to speed on biomass energy. Because if venture capitalists and other investors don't catch up to state of the art, the oil and chemical companies are going to own big biomass. (not small biomass, which will remain a boon to the communities and regions smart enough to build the infrastructure for a long time)

Even if predictions of a cooler climate (and shorter growing seasons) are true, the Earth has plenty of capacity for bio-energy. The problem right now (besides optimising technologies) is the infrastructure to utilise it. It takes time to build the infrastructure for cellulosic electricity, biomass CHP, Biomass to Liquid (BTL) fuels, biomass pre-processing and processing, Bio-Coal (torrefaction) etc.

Bob Wallace

Even if (and that's very much an "if" at this point in time) we get a temporary break from climbing global temperatures we in the US have another significant problem that appropriate biofuel would address.

We are bleeding cash to offshore oil producers. Actually we quit bleeding cash, we're bleeding debt.

Getting ourselves off imported petroleum would greatly help our trade balance. That's a very real short term benefit that we could enjoy during a period of climate warming stall.

If, for some very unexpected reason, the globe were to start cooling off (say the Warming Fairy dies) then we'd be way ahead financially and would have the money to tackle some of our other problems.

If we do enjoy a decade or so of little to no warming due to natural variations in northern ocean temperatures then we would exit this period with less CO2 hanging up there waiting to trap heat that we don't want.

--

We are at a choice point to break some of the power of large corportations over us. Right now it's possible for moderate sized startups to get liquid fuel and electricity operations up and running.

That would be a boon to local areas as more of the profits would be likely to stay in the local community.

And it might be a boon to all of us if we had a government that wasn't as beholding to large corporations.

--

Blue Flame is interesting because they're in the process of building a 'real world' plant. And they are designing it in a manner that would let others be built in cookie-cutter style. That would greatly speed up the design and approval process.

I suspect that it is much, much easier to build a new wind farm now than it was ten years ago. We've got data. We've got hardware off the shelf.

thesound

If this land is in any way usable as some sort of farm crop, this is not an acceptable use of the growing space.

Not using food stock or useable farmland and reusing 95% of the water required, how is this not the answer to completely replacing the diesel & jet fuel we are currently getting from oil? Algae sequesters carbon dioxide when growing to make up 2/3 of its weight, getting us much closer to a closed loop resource. Of course this is only a temporary solution until we replace internal combustion engines, but it would get us much closer to carbon neutral on these fuels. This company already has completed an 1/8 acre pilot that translates to enough biomass to produce 33,000 gallons of fuel per acre, per year.

www.valcent.net

Valcent Products has also solved the problems of shading and scalability.

PANN Industries

PANN industries provide a wide variety of products and services. We have a reputation for quality and reliability within the industrial field. Our services include supply of high quality industrial gases and chemicals, Ammonia Chlorine gas safety kits. Ammonia is also used as fuel by using Ammonia Cracking Unit. For further Inquiry visit http://www.pannindustries.com

No Fax Payday Loans

Today we heard more disastrous economic news. Higher unemployment, more home foreclosures, skyrocketing oil prices, obscene gas prices. Always try to budget your money with appropriate financial planning. If you do not, then you will often resort to borrowing money. It is advisable that at the start of each month you set a realistic monthly budget, this is so that you can already balance out your earnings and expenditures. Articles at; http://personalmoneystore.com/moneyblog/ has the main objective of helping people to understand the issues pertaining to no fax payday loans.

No Fax Payday Loans

Because of financial crisis people are now creative in finding ways on how to cope up to the present situation. An online payday loan can be the solution to our problems when it comes on financial matter. As this industry of payday loans is fast growing we must be careful on what payday loan to trust because there are company who has plans to deceive their consumers. For us not to be misled by the other payday loan companies this site has information about having loans: http://personalmoneystore.com/moneyblog/. It also discuss about no fax payday loans.

No Fax Payday Loan-David

It is good to hear that there are alternate sources of energy already. Oftentimes, they are cheaper. With a rising number of financial issues these days, we are better off concocting ideas that can seriously help us. If you want to read more about financial issues just check out this website. http://personalmoneystore.com/moneyblog/


No Fax Payday Loan-David

It is good to hear that there are alternate sources of energy already. Oftentimes, they are cheaper. With a rising number of financial issues these days, we are better off concocting ideas that can seriously help us. If you want to read more about financial issues just check out this website. http://personalmoneystore.com/moneyblog/

Joanna Schroeder

Thanks for posting good news about continued expansion in the ethanol industry. I agree that ethanol should be part of an energy independence plan. If you’d like to follow coverage of the ethanol industry in the United States, check out Toni Nuernberg’s blog Ethanol Conversations (http://www.ethanolconversations.org/). Let us know what you think.

Thanks!
Joanna Schroeder
EPIC Communications Director

Rick L.

Great Website. Go look at it. Thanks a bunch, Rick Lanese

bedroom furniture

Transportation to a processing plant might be a major problem. Long hauls of low energy mass would be a deal killer. But there might be a way to create small processing plants that could sit in the middle of switchgrass farming areas.

instant degree

Get an Accredited College Degree In 5 Days without ever stepping foot into a college classroom or even doing coursework.No Need to Take Admission Exams, No Need To Study, Receive a College Degree for What You Already Know! Earn an associate, bachelor's, master's or even a doctorate degree without opening a single book… Even if you struggled or barely made it out of high school. For more details visit us at http://www.instantdegrees.biz/ .

buy degree

Get an Accredited College Degree In 5 Days without ever stepping foot into a college classroom or even doing coursework.No Need to Take Admission Exams, No Need To Study, Receive a College Degree for What You Already Know! Earn an associate, bachelor's, master's or even a doctorate degree without opening a single book… Even if you struggled or barely made it out of high school. For more details visit us at http://www.instantdegrees.biz/ .

Gary W

We are Ag Fuel and Feed and pelletize a 100% DDGS. We will pelletize all types or combinations of biomass material, including switchgrass. See www.agfuelandfeed.com

penis enlargement

Oklahoma has secured 1,100 acres of land for the world's largest stand of switchgrass devoted to
cellulosic ethanol production. Planting will take place within the next 45 days.
Same thing we are doing in india.

chester jacob

if you are interested in learning exactly how to generate power and reduce your bill then this is the perfect resource for you!

http://www.windpowercost.org/

don bartell

Are you interested in learning the best, fastest and easiest way to
maintain the efficiency your Wind Turbine without spending a lot
of money on supplies?

If you answered “yes” to the question above, then this may
very well be the most exciting message you’ve read all day. Here’s
why…

You’re about to discover a proven system for optimizing the Best kept secrets to Wind Power Cost. This system works whether you have experience or are a beginner.

http://www.windpowercost.org/

Mark Mayes

The energy revolution needs to begin with our local farmers using small scale ethanol production all across our great country and around the world.

The "hands down", overall winner of ethanol production is cattails followed by similar starchy plants (i.e. sweet sorghum, sugar beets, Jerusalem artichokes, etc.) that can be naturally fermented and distilled into ethanol. By the way, corn produces about the lowest amount of ethanol per ton and as such, is not recommended for ethanol production.

Except for battling pollution, Cellulosic Ethanol production using switchgrass and other cellulose biomass is no better than petroleum companies "controlling" energy sources and prices.

The reason for the huge funding for cellulosic ethanol is very political. Corporations are fighting for the chance to "patent" their form of cellulosic ethanol which would squash any competition. In the end, these mega corporations will continue to control our energy sources and costs. Part of their profits will go back to funding politicians and their campaigns.

The true solution for affordable ethanol production using existing technology is here.. right now!

Local farmers can make a professional income from renewable energy and sustainable agriculture methods.

Here's a short video on producing ethanol at a local level:

Alcohol Can Be A Gas Workshop
http://www.betterfoodbetterliving.com/David-Blume-Workshop.html

Business Process Modelling Training

Properly written EIS would describe the feedstock sources for the the ethanol plant and the safety practices that would be followed........

Energy writers

It will present economically and efficiently to produce the plant crops suitable for sustainable bioenergy.

lace wedding dresses

Stop making a fuss out of something that when used properly is perfectly safe

Made in China

Made in China

laptop battery

It will present panasonic hdc-hs250 battery economically and efficiently panasonic nv-gs70 battery to produce the plant crops suitable for sustainable panasonic pv-dv100 battery bioenergy.

Healthy Aging

Do you want information and advice on aging and health supplements with antiaging benefits like resveratrol, the miracle polyphenol found in red wine? Resveratrol research suggests it has antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and cardiovascular benefits.

The comments to this entry are closed.

. .




Batteries/Hybrid Vehicles