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June 17, 2005

Comments

OZ

good article, thanks for the turn on. onward.

J. Cole

Thanks for the info! This looks like incredible technology.

JesseJenkins

This is a very promising technology! There seems to be so much good news on the biofuels front these days (using cellulose-rich parts of plant for biofuels, these guys etc) that I think we may see the end of the days of ethanol as an oversubsidized, net energy-negative, unrealistic product. Thanks for the article and thanks for a great blog. Keep it up!

Dr Wayne Davies

Lovely idea but costs will be significant especially capital costs which will dominate. Each m2 of sunit area produces only about 10 watts of absorbed power or about 1% of the insolation rate. The vast area of polycarbonate tubes needed cannot make fuel competitively wrt petroleum. But if we throw out the economics then anything is possible.

DR BEENA AGARWAL

I WANT TO KNOW DETAILED TECHNOLOGY ABOUT PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL THROUGH BIOREACTORS .I THINK IF PLANNED PROPERLY IT WILL HAVE TO BE COST EFFECTIVE BY ANY MEANS.

Rajesh Agrawal

Dear sir,
We are already in production of Spirulina algae in Central India. We are interested in getting technology of growing oil containing algae and production thereof

Tesla

So....

How many BTU's/CC's/or amount of H2 does this device supply to offset the gas that would otherwise be burned?

Could the mixture be increased to burn more H2/H2O and less Gas?


Jean-Pierre Lambert

Really interesting concept, we are looking for new technology for Thailand that could be use for bio-diesel production in complement to bio diesel of palm tree.
We would appreciate to get as much information as possible.
Thank you for your future help.

Gilbert

Bio diesel from Jatropha Curcus is natures Substitute bio fuel. We are Manufacturers and Exporters of Bio Diesel Units in different quantities.


Bio Diesel - Jatropha curcas
Bio diesel from Jatropha Curcas is natures Substitute bio fuel. We are Manufacturers and Exporters of Bio Diesel Units in different quantities.

2020 Institute

I agree with the sentiment that replacing petrol diesel with biodiesel is a good thing. I remain substantially unconvinced that this algae option is a fix-all to mitigate the vast land demands of oil yielding crops. It's one thing to say 15,000 gallons per acre, its another to keep pace producing it year round. At the very minimum, it's not the pie in the sky ethanol solution one so often hears of. If I see solid proof, I'll get behind it 100%. Thanks to Green Fuels Tech Corp for sharing!

greenunderground

i would like to see the plans for building an algae farm and operating perameters available to anyone looking, if they are avilable now could you point me in the right direction

James Fraser

greenunderground: I have no information as to who would have plans or if any such plans exist. I suggest you contact Michael Briggs at the University of New Hampshire to see if he can help you. A link to his website is in the first paragraph. The site lists his email address as msbriggs@unh.edu.

M. Peterson

One thing to remember about the greenfuel, is that it required a concentrated CO2 source, i.e. flue gas from a power plant or similar. It won't solve all our problems, but may certianly allow us to use our resouces more efficiently.

amazingdrx

"it required a concentrated CO2 source"

Well it does still produce fuel without the CO 2, but it also can produce natural gas as another byproduct. This methane processed through a high temperature fuel cell/microturbine can reach 75% efficiency.

Then the CO 2 can be recycled through the algae system. This makes the solar system a backup generation source for other renewables.

When coupled with a regular coal plant it could eventually replace a lot of coal combustion that would otherwise be needed as backup.

And any facility, like a mall, large public building (the penatagon for instance?),or factory, with a lot of roof space for solar collectors could use this process for backup power when the solar electric part of the system is not generating power.

backsmith

We should all think about municipal decentralized systems to produce biofuels.
We should not trust corporations to make the transition any more than we would expect a middle eastern country to help us change.
they will milk their cash cow until it dies.
We should assist in this mercy killing.
There are millions and millions of acres of dessert where biofuels could be harvested, and it most likely would help cool the land.

green entrepreneur fan

I read about your company in one of my biz magazines. I am a big fan. I started to set up a biodiesel company by recycling large amounts of restaurant grease. However grease filtering services have locked up all of the sources in my area in contracts and buying from them would increase my cost by 2 dollars a gallon. Soy and corn is not cost effective. I was hoping you could give me some basic info and recipies for making biodiesel from algae.

Vic Verghese

Nice article, I had read about the work on algae-based biodiesel earlier, but this article of your yours provides more specific details about the equipments used and related details...well, what has not been spelt out explicitly is the cost of biodiesel produced from algae at a small-scale and at much larger scales...also, what are the specific strains of algae that produce good yields of oil? Are these algae growable in any part of the world? Some more details in this re would help us know to what extent such experiments are replicable across the world...

What is notable is, if it even has the theoretical possibility of replacing petroleum, why isn't there a lot more excitement in this field? After all, many wars have been ( and are being ) fought for oil...

Another page I found that provides good details about biodiesel is The Biodiesel Encyclopedia from Castor Oil Online

Vic, BPO

Iain McClatchie

Several of your commenters have asked about the details of using algae to produce vegetable oil or other carbohydrates that can in turn be processed into biodiesel or other biofuels.

Without reference to the economics, the whole idea is quite appealing. The economics are quite sobering, however. The essential problem is that your biofuel plant has to produce fuel in $/gallon competition with folks who just pump the stuff out of the ground. It's impossible to beat the economics of simply pumping a nearly finished good unless you include the relative costs of securing access to the real estate used. (i.e. Saudi Arabia or Iran versus the Texas seashore.)

The U.S. government ran a multiyear investigation into using algae for oil production: The Aquatic Species Program (warning: hundreds of pages of government report. I found it very interesting.) Their initial idea was just to absorb the CO2 from flue emissions, something the MIT crew appears to have rediscovered two decades later.

Although portions of the program appear, to me, to have gone astray, I think its too bad the Clinton administration shut it down. In particular, I think a multidecade R&D project aimed at producing robust microalgae that produce oil at high rates would be a valuable and relatively cheap (millions of dollars a year) public investment.

Craig

Many say we will see $3.50/gal this summer. If you factor in Iran, who knows how high it could go. Everyone knows America MUST get off the oil. After September 11, 2001 I expected our President to call on Americans to GET OFF THE OIL. I was expecting a speech like the one JFK gave that motivated us to reach for the moon. As you know, this never happened. Eventually I realized that the only way this is going to happen is for us to do it ourselves. To that end I created this idea and have been trying to make it a reality..

The EPA is offering a research grant opportunity that I believe is a perfect fit for this idea. I have sent an e-mail to a hand picked list of university professors who have experience with government research projects. I’m looking to form a research team to apply for the EPA grant, conduct a social-economic experiment and surveys to determine to what extent the American public will support it, project the economic potential of WPH, and identify logistical, social and political obstacles as well as opportunities.

All government grants are awarded based on merit of the proposed research. I believe WPH has merit but your help is needed to verify it. You can help by posting your feedback. Let the professors and the EPA know what you think about WPH. Do you think this idea is worth pursuing? We need to know if Americans will support a plan like this.

Do you have any ideas to improve the plan?

Share any and all of your thoughts.

Tell your friends and family about this Blog post and ask them to post their thoughts on WPH

http://wepayhalf.org

Thank you

Craig

Ecacofonix

A page that provides more inputs on Oil from Algae - Oilgae.com !

Ec, IT

Brett MacDonald

Very interesting concept.

Could someone supply me information about the bioreactors and how they are constructed?
Many thanks!

Brett.

vasanth

thanks for providing aintroduction on green fuel.please inform the procedure how to became amember of your esteemed institution.

vasanth

thanks for providing aintroduction on green fuel.please inform the procedure how to became amember of your esteemed institution.

 Harry Hendrickson

GREAT ARTICLES ON WHAT MAY BE THE ANSWER TO KEEPING AMERICA strong and our economy from crashing and burning. WE must be aware of the oil depletion and how the few remaining oil deposits should be safeguarded in order to use it for necessary purposes. Biodiesel can certainly replace all of our transportation fuel which will allow fossil fuel to have a a long life into the future and especially our childrens future. If programs were created whereby citizens could contribute their fossil fuel tax to biodiesel projects,we could realize great changes in our very near future. Diesel engines are already being readied for production in most of the car manufacturers plans. This should tell us where the future is going in respect to fuel type! I hope our population takes this biodiesel fuel seriously or projects will not come to a reality in enough time to be ready when the middle east turns off the oil spigot. I will be doing my part to keep my elected officials abreast of this amazing biodiesel alternative and promote bills which will support its development. America can not and should not be sold short on ingenuity.Our past shows our toughness in pulling together when we had to. Let's get together now and show the world that we are the great country made of americans who care about their liberty and quality of life.

Anatoli Juschin CDH

Dear sir,

Our company together with our partners is planning to invest in the future in Biofuel Agriculture.
We would appreciate if your company could provide us information about technologies and growing
conditions for rapid growth of Algae for biofuels.


1. What kind of technology did you use for growing micro Algae?
2. What Algae species/strains are ideally used for biodisel production.
3. What is the oil content your best Algae sp. And what is the yield in tones of oil/hectare/year.
4. What is the process of the oil production?
5. What other component can be used for products like methanol etc.
6. What are the optimal conditions for growing Algae using your system :.

Solar radiation energy – light intensity
Day length (hours)
Temperatures - day/night
Water quality - Ph, E.c
Nutritional conditions (N, P,K and micro elements, CO2)

7. What are the causes for crop losses of the Algae – by bacteria or other microorganisms, and how to protect it .
8. Using your technology, how much will it cost to produce 1 liter of oil.
9. What is the cost of starting and operation the layout for production of 100 tones of oil/year?

Thank you for your trouble,

Sincerely yours,
Anatoli Juschin CDH

Jushin
...................................
Anatoli Juschin CDH
Hof - Feldbachstr. 23A
35683 Dillenburg
Germany
Tel.: + 49(0) 2771 23976
Fax: + 49(0) 2771 5258
eMail:AJCDH@juschin.de
www.juschin.de

Rick Thurman

Great reference to one of the most promising post-oilpeak technologies out there.

Per some of the comments/ questions above:
The economics may be better than you think, in light of 2006 costs for conventional oil (60 to 70 USD/ barrel), plus the prospects for higher prices with global "peak oil" production probably happening right now.

This should work for anyone who is already burning anything (coal, natural gas/methane, biomass) for industrial heating or electric power production purposes. They can now make use of the inevitable by-product and make a fuel usable in current global vehicle fleets.
At first pass, this would only partially mitigate both peak oil and global warming concerns, since anyone using this with coal or natural gas or heavy fuel oil feedstocks is still dependent on fossil fuels, which will still run out, plus add to atmospheric and oceanic carbon-loading. On the plus side, it will mitigate peak oil related concerns for countries with coal supplies (two top candidates: China and USA, with huge coal deposits.)

A couple of admittedly naive ideas: in order to be really sustainable, any new fuels-generation technology needs to be able to attack THREE inter-related globally- scaled problems:
1. Peak Oil (larger scale: all minerals, including all fossil fuels and uranium, eventually run out);
2. Global Warming (any chemical process, at large enough scale, if it re-introduces "sequestered" chemical deposits into the atmosphere, hydrosphere or biosphere, is capable of throwing off our planet's GeoBioChemical balance;
3. as mentioned above, reliance upon soy, canola, jatropha, oilpalm or any other land-based oilseed crop takes huge acreages. At scales large enough to replace current petrol consumption, these would require conversion of so much tropical rainforest and other wildlands as to wipe out nearly all the planets wild species of plants, animals, even microbes. This general problem is already referred to as the Sixth Extinction, already in progress. A subset of this problem is the shoving of whole populations off their farmlands for conversion of family-oriented farmlands (peaant subsistence agriculture) to commercial plantations... the basis for most agrarian revolts for the last two centuries worldwide.

This algae-based biochems production strategy looks like it could be the basis for a whole chemical production platform capable of not only replacing our current petrochemicals production, but even capable of being expanded to allow high-quality, high-volume chemicals production to allow ALL societies around the world to have the same level of materials consumption seen in the traditionally defined "First World": North America, Europe and the Pacific Rim. The amount of land area necessary to produce both fuels and chemicals is within the scope of arable and usable lands within every settled region of the planet right now... no need to colonize the middle of the Sahara, so to speak. Even China and India could use this and become fuel and chemicals-sufficient, let alone usual Trilateral members. This is exactly the sort of high volume and high efficiency production strategy that will be necessary to end the American/European strategy of corraling all the world's resources for themselves that has been the CONSCIOUS and ADMITTED basis of their foreign policy since the post-WW2 planning days of George Kennan.

An important corollary to this research strategy should be to not only wean ourselves from fossil fuels that continue drawing down mineral reserves and continue carbon-loading our atmosphere, but to actually find ways to take carbon out of circulation from the air and seas, literally, and sequester them. If we can do so in ways that turn that carbon into useful products instead of allowing it to be a financial sink, well so much the better.

My favorite candidate for that, so far, would be to use seawater in barges following the major ocean currents: North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, and South India ocean gyres, specifically (if you know of any other major surface ocean currents that could return a barge back to its home port on a regular circuit, please nominate it). The idea would be to launch the barge into the current, float around with the current, perhaps even with sail-assistance mainly to keep in on the circular course, slowly... and pump surface seawater (one of the natural carbon-sinks now absorbing CO2) along with atmospheric CO2 percolating through, exposing the pipes to sunlight as mentioned in the story above. If the demands for on-board power can be met from wind and wave power generated on-board, so much the better. Keep in mind that if algae can be found and selected to produce fuels, we can probably find and/or select algae species capable of producing any combination of basic chemical feedstocks, including foods, livestock feed, fertilizer, and carbon-based industrial feedstocks (industrial chemicals and industrial materials). This last could be very promising for finding feedstocks for producing carbon-fiber (light weight structures), carbon-nanotube (electrical conductor) and other "new economy" carbon-based materials... many of which will be necessary for creating materials to use energy efficiently or to replace minerals that may come into short supply as China, India, Brazil, etc try to bring the good life to their billions along with the West-plus PacRim's billion and a half.

Another plus to this strategy could be it's use of the resources of the high seas. Legally and politically, they would be open to anyone with a coast (most of the world's nations). Also, since most of the oceans' natural biological productivity occurs along coastlines, encouraging use of the whole of the surfare area of the great ocean currents with a high-efficiency algae platform could actually mean a real increase in the worl's NET biological productivity, using areas that are currently naturally "biological desolate" -- ocean current segments far from the coasts, shallow banks, and upwellings. We've spent so much time and imagination with trying to make "deserts bloom", that most of us have never noticed that the greatest expanse of biologically inactive area on our planet is actually the open seas! And much of this area already has wind, sunlight (often cloudless, or sunny enough even with clouds), waves (potential wavepower-generated electricity here for local on-board use)... what it mainly lacks for biological productivity is minerals. Provide that in the right amounts (see your local estuary for natural examples of that), and you have a recipe for providing thousands or millions of square miles of new biologically productive area right here on earth. Use it to provide carbon-fiber to replace aluminum and other sheet metals, or carbon-nanotubes to replace electrical wiring, and you have a way to sequester carbon by making useful products, not the current sequestration schemes that are sinks both literally and financially.

This doesn't need to be done by Americans or Europeans. China or India could use this to provide for themselvs and tell the Trilateral World to keep their chokehold on Third World resources. Many of the Third World countries could go to whoever becomes the leader in this type of strategy and develop their own affordable, small-scale projects, and grow their own fleets without going into perpetual debt.

This could give everyone now in the world access to sufficient fuel, food, and materials to live a decent life. Not necessarily a lucrative life, but a decent life. It could provide a sufficient base to allow all of us, globally, to breathe easy, without fear of destitution.

The keys are:
1. using algae or other biological species capable of phenomenal rates of conversion of solar power and basic elements into useful products (the key here is that algae don't build big bodies, like plants -- so they don't have a lot of "metabolic overhead");
2. using an area of the world with ALMOST all the resources necessary for high biomass productivity, but not currently active.... and not currently under high social demand (the sunnier regions of the high seas with little primary biological activity, far from the continental coasts, fit this description. And this constitutes a set of areas rivaling any of the continents in size);
3. use of a set of technologies that any middle-income country can afford to learn and internalize;
4. geographic access to an area to use it in, that doesn't tie up land/area already in use by others (people or species) -- again, every country with access to the seas fits this. And there's no practical way to prevent any nation from gaining access, and little reason to bother. There's more than enough area out there for everyone to mount their own industry.
5. Using sustainable energy/ power sources readily available at the production platform -- a combination of sun/solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, wave and ocean current should be used first, before bringing other power sources on-board.
6. Don't just think of this as a fuel-source. Algae could be a means to produce a wide range of chemicals. The "original" research project on algae biodiesel in Hawaii searched through thousands of algae species to find the specific ones that met their criteria for producing oil... how many other species, producing how many other chemicals, were ignored in the search for biodiesel? I'm reminded of the early European conquerors who scoured the planet for gold, yet passed by other treasures now judged far more important. In our current gneration's scouring of the planet for "resources" which are only defined as such in reference to CURRENT or even last century's technologies... what other resources are staring us right in the face?

Let others struggle with irrigating deserts or settling outer space... algae, sunlight and the oceans can provide more than enough to keep the next generation busy building a good life.

amazingdrx

There is enough area on roofs and over parking lots to grow the algae in solar collectors Rick. Without using land area or ocean installations.

Providing that transportation is switched to plugin hybrids running on renewable energy and algae biofuel.

I think a better mode for ocean based power generation would be floating wave/wind power platforms anchored 10 to 15 miles offshore, out of sight and mind of NIMBYs.

matt

i am doing a project on deriving a useful fuel from algae.

Perry

Details please, Amazingdrx

Perry

Details please, Matt

amazingdrx

Check out my blog for details Perry.

I have developed a comprehensive plan to address the replacement of nuclear and fossil fuel with renewables, plugin/fuel cell vehicle to grid distributed backup generation and storage, and geothermal heating/cooling.

amazingdrx

Just click on my name.

RG Torres

"i would like to see the plans for building an algae farm and operating perameters available to anyone looking, if they are avilable now could you point me in the right direction"

VIEW:

https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/1811/5981/1/Modeling+and+Simulation+of+the+Algae+to+Biodiesel+Fuel+Cycle+-+Sazdanoff+undergrad+thesis.pdf

Bill M

I caught the end of a Neil Cavuto segment on 2/15/07 with someone, whom I can't remember his name, espoused this idea of Algae for solving the US energy problems with Neil saying that "This technology seems very promising" but I caught the VERY end when he said goodbye to his guest. I hope they play the segment again. ANY alternative fuel and/or CO2 reducing technology that can help this country overcome its OPEC addiction would be FABULOUS!

Matthew

I think that bio-fuel made from algea would be a good fit for energy production coupled with wave power. I envision a scheme with either a specialized ship or station out on the ocean. Connected to the station would be standardized vessels that are engineered to float over the surface of waves connected to each other with simple hydrolic pumps. The vessels would hold th algea and be connected together in strands. The mechanical energy caused by the waves could pump the algea for havest, squeeze the pulp to extract the oil, etc. So somebody get to work on that!

Kate Sobieski

About 10 years ago I got lost in Homestead Florida out near the Everglades and the Air Force Base. I stopped for directions at a fish farm on about 4-5 acres of raceways. A guy named John Pulawski gave me a tour of the place. He insisted that the fish were only there to pay for the overhead of his research, and that he grew algae for fish food, and did research on algae for OIL to run the gigantic water pumps and generators and other equipment. He said that it cost five more times to process the algae than it cost to grow it, but that when fuel hit $2 a gallon he could break even and pay himself and a staff well. At the time it sounded absurd-growing oil at a loss, and he was going off on carbon footprints and how an acre of algae eliminated the carbon footprint of the average American family or 3rd World Village. I kept in touch for a few years, as he gave me (and the local homeless orgs) free fish, but his old emal address isn't current, and I visited there a few years ago and was told that he moved to Nova Scotia, but I'd like to get in touch with him if anyone here knows of him. Until I saw Gore's movie I thought this guy was an agreeable Mad Scientist, but now I think I may have been getting free fish from a modern day Thomas Edison. He could talk non-stop for hours about energy and politics, but in all those visits he never offered to show the equipment that he used to break up and process the algae, but an interesting detail-I think he used freezers to process the oil, because the compressors outside that small building were half as big as the building itself.

Kate Sobieski

About 10 years ago I got lost in Homestead Florida out near the Everglades and the Air Force Base. I stopped for directions at a fish farm on about 4-5 acres of raceways. A guy named John Pulawski gave me a tour of the place. He insisted that the fish were only there to pay for the overhead of his research, and that he grew algae for fish food, and did research on algae for OIL to run the gigantic water pumps and generators and other equipment. He said that it cost five more times to process the algae than it cost to grow it, but that when fuel hit $2 a gallon he could break even and pay himself and a staff well. At the time it sounded absurd-growing oil at a loss, and he was going off on carbon footprints and how an acre of algae eliminated the carbon footprint of the average American family or 3rd World Village. I kept in touch for a few years, as he gave me (and the local homeless orgs) free fish, but his old emal address isn't current, and I visited there a few years ago and was told that he moved to Nova Scotia, but I'd like to get in touch with him if anyone here knows of him. Until I saw Gore's movie I thought this guy was an agreeable Mad Scientist, but now I think I may have been getting free fish from a modern day Thomas Edison. He could talk non-stop for hours about energy and politics, but in all those visits he never offered to show the equipment that he used to break up and process the algae, but an interesting detail-I think he used freezers to process the oil, because the compressors outside that small building were half as big as the building itself.

S.A.Alagarsamy

India is a vast country with million of acres remain uncultivated or underutilised.I have my own lands near to a Fireworks manufacturing company which produces large amounts of CO2 ...I am now interseted to create bioponds in my lands and trap al co2 to produce Algae based Biofuels..
But I need support,,,,
I can provide large volume of lands
Is there any Investor??
S.A.Alagarsamy
India

S.A.Alagarsamy

we can provide large areas of lands for solar Energy production ..here in our are our normal tem is between 35 to 45 at peak summer...
I welcome any company deals with Solar power plants to produce power
alagarsamy

E. Askew

I am doing research on the development of biofuel from algae and was wondering if your company may have more detail information regarding your process to develop such a technology and any financial forecasts and commitment required. I need to present the case, describe the process (value chain), suppliers, buyers, and perform a financial analysis, based on forecasted projections since the concept is in its infancy stage.

Any guidance or suggestions regarding where I can obtain such information would be appreciated


Emilio Lopez King

we need more info about algae biodiesel production.
Thanks

asif iqbal

I am asif iqbal a second year civil engineering undergraduate from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
I am very interested in this field of biodiesel generation using algae.I have done a
seminar presentation on this topic too.
I would love to do a research project in this
field during the period of May-June.
my email id is asif_iqbal@iitb.ac.in,
aashoorocks@gmail.com

noris

we are very interested in the research and
practical use, especially on the US West Coast. We can offer facilities for more
resarch and practical test. Please contact us.

Sai Ram Sathyakumar

Wonderful, A builder with enlightened self interest, wish to contribute to society, reduce pollution, and are getting into Jetropa plantation, to empower village women. Instead of tall buildings, counting money, we would be happy to apply your ideas, and offer TIME + INCLINATION + MONEY leading to Evolution. You are welcome to ride us to the common goal of giving back something to society into which we landed !
Sai Ram Sathyakumar

Matt

I was wondering if it is possible to grow the algae indoors with the use of grow light instead of sun light. I know some plants can be grown under those conditions and I wanted to know if algae could too. Please E-mail me if you know.

GreyFlcn

I wouldn't get too excited over this.
Many of their claims appear to be raw hype.

greyfalcon. net/ algae
greyfalcon. net/ algae2

Prabhat Garg

It is true that it may be a feed stock or source of biodiesel in the times to come but is it really possible to produce biodiesel from algae using emissions on commercial basis ? Amazing...But if it turns true the technology deserved to be honoured with Nobel Prize because of the fact that it provides solution to the biggest problemsof this century i.e 'climate change" and"GHG emissions".

Prabhat Garg

The article is celebrating its 2nd anniversary and deserved to be updated with latest developments in the field.
We shall appreciate if the author of the article come forward to update the article.

Prabhat Garg
Director
Ozone Energy solutions
# 188/2 Sector 45-A Chandigarh-160047

vijay

i like to no, which algae have more tendency to produce the oil. what is its species name?
did algae contains any metabolic wast , which is toxic.

vijay

We would appreciate if your company could provide us information about technologies and growing
conditions for rapid growth of Algae for biofuels.


1. What kind of technology did you use for growing micro Algae?
2. What Algae species/strains are ideally used for biodisel production.
3. What is the oil content your best Algae sp. And what is the yield in tones of oil/hectare/year.
4. What is the process of the oil production?
5. What other component can be used for products like methanol etc.
6. What are the optimal conditions for growing Algae using your system :.

Solar radiation energy – light intensity
Day length (hours)
Temperatures - day/night
Water quality - Ph, E.c
Nutritional conditions (N, P,K and micro elements, CO2)

7. What are the causes for crop losses of the Algae – by bacteria or other microorganisms, and how to protect it .
8. Using your technology, how much will it cost to produce 1 liter of oil.
9. What is the cost of starting and operation the layout for production of 100 tones of oil/year?

The comments to this entry are closed.

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