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« Two Profound Articles | Main | About Hybrid Cars »

May 16, 2005

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JesseJenkins

My research (done last winter so may be slightly out of date by now) yielded the following summary comparison of the various battery techs out there. I hope this is useful (formatting is hard in these comments, sorry, maybe you can reformat it Jim):

There are multiple advanced battery technologies out there, many of which are coming close to being feasible for commercializable electric vehicles (EVs). The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has set various short and long term goals for a commercializable electric vehicle battery and I will use these throughout as benchmarks. (See https://www.uscar.org/consortia&teams/consortiahomepages/con-usabc.htm, “USABC Goals for Advanced Batteries for EVs”). The following is a summary comparing specifications for various advanced battery technologies (question marks indicate holes in my data. Feel free to add to or update this list if you have better information):

USABC Short-term Goals:
Power Density (W/L): 460 Specific Power (W/kg): 300
Energy Density (Wh/L): 230 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 150
Life (years) - 10 Selling Price ($/kWh^): <150
Maturity: n/a

USABC Long-term Goals:
Power Density (W/L): 600 Specific Power (W/kg): 400
Energy Density (Wh/L): 300 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 200
Life (years) - 10 Selling Price ($/kWh^): <100
Maturity: n/a

Nickel-Metal-Hydride:
Power Density (W/L): 600 Specific Power (W/kg): 220
Energy Density (Wh/L): 200 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 75
Life (years) - 6-8 Selling Price ($/kWh^): 120-200
Maturity: production

Advanced Lead-Acid:
Power Density (W/L): 995 Specific Power (W/kg): 412
Energy Density (Wh/L): 71 Specific Energy(Wh/kg): 45
Life (years) - ? Selling Price ($/kWh^): 100-120
Maturity: production

Sodium-Nickel-Chloride:
Power Density (W/L): 265 Specific Power (W/kg): 169
Energy Density (Wh/L): 148 Specific Energy(Wh/kg): 94
Life (years) - ? Selling Price ($/kWh^): 300
Maturity: prototype

Lithium-Ion:
Power Density (W/L): ? Specific Power (W/kg): ?
Energy Density (Wh/L): 300 Specific Energy(Wh/kg): 100
Life (years) - ? Selling Price ($/kWh^): 150-180
Maturity: production

Lithium-polymer:
Power Density (W/L): 445 Specific Power (W/kg): 315
Energy Density (Wh/L): 220 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 183
Life (years) - ? Selling Price ($/kWh^): ?
Maturity: prototype

Zinc-Air (fuel cells):
Power Density (W/L): 30 Specific Power (W/kg): 100
Energy Density (Wh/L): 200 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 200
Life (years) - ? Selling Price ($/kWh^): 75-100
Maturity: prototype

Ultracapcitors:
Power Density (W/L): 1 billion Specific Power (W/kg): 1.5 million
Energy Density (Wh/L): 5 Specific Energy(Wh/kg: 12
Life (years) - 10-12 Selling Price ($/kWh^): 100
Maturity: prototype

^ at greater than 25,000 units sold economies of scale
*much of the information used above gathered from https://www.madkatz.com, especially https://www.madkatz.com/ev/batteryTechnologyComparison.html.
More on Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Advanced Lead-Acid and Sodium-Nickel-Chloride (the ZEBRA battery) from https://www.electric-fuel.com/evtech/papers/paper2.pdf.
See also Electric Vehicles UK at https://www.evuk.co.uk/links/art2.html.
For Sodium-Nickel-Chloride see https://www.betard.co.uk/.
For Lithium-Ion see https://www.idxtek.com/li-ion.htm.
For Lithium-Polymer, see https://www.electrovaya.com/.
For Zinc-Air see https://www.electric-fuel.com/, especially
www.electric-fuel.com/evtech/papers/paper2
For Ultracapacitors see https://www.maxwell.com/ultracapacitors/index.html.


As you can see, none of these battery techs meet all of the USABC's goals although some do in certain catergories. However, if you pair ultracapictors (which arent truly batteries but capacitors able deliver very serious power over short periods of time but can store very little energy) for acceleration and climbing power with some other higher-energy battery or fuel cell (like Zinc-Air, my pick for most promising option) or Lithium-ion, you could get a pretty efficient EV or HEV. I believe this is already what many HEV manufacturers are planning. Ultracapacitors can deliver very good performance, potentially dashing the 'EVs are slow and pokish' perception. Anyway, plug-in HEVs seem very promising to me and advanced battery tech is ALMOST where we really need it to be (and obviously close enough to start marketing HEVs)

Short Term Motorhome Insurance

The plug-in hybrid cars are too much attractive and these cars do not suffer any mileage limitations and also helpful in economy.
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frank2869

Short Term Motorhome Insurance

Motorhome Insurance Uk

Hybrid cars are the beneficiary of this technology, it require a larger battery pack than a hybrid to gain this technology.

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Mark

Motorhome Insurance Uk

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